It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city." Two miles North of Tarsus the plain gives way to low, undulating hills, which extend to the foothills of Taurus, the great mountain chain lying some 30 miles North of the city, which divides Cilicia from Lycaonia and Cappadocia. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. ). Bibles; Deals; More; Log In × Log In. Later rabbis lauded Gamaliel for his knowledge, but he may be better known for his most famous pupil—another Pharisee named Saul of Tarsus (Acts 22:3), who later became the apostle Paul. The outcome was the reorganization of Tarsus as an autonomous city with a coinage of its own, which took place under Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164), probably in 171 BC. Acts 22:3-16 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV). It is at this time that Tarsus is first mentioned in the Bible, unless we are to accept the … Article Images Copyright © 2021 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. ii.5). Of the foundation of the city various traditions were current in antiquity, and it is impossible to arrive any certain conclusion, for such foundation legends often reflected the sympathies and wishes of a city's later population rather than the historic facts of its origin. Down to Alexander's conquest, they ordinarily bear Aramaic legends, and many of them show the effigy of Baal Tarz, the Lord of Tarsus; yet, these coins are clearly influenced by Greek types and workmanship. A persistent misconception has Jewish sages mumble about cloven hoofs and Sabbaths and such, but in reality Jewish wisdom (Hochma) was all about practical skills and practically applicable theory — while a mastery of agricultural techniques secondarily necessitated theoretical considerations of the observable cosmos, etcetera — and very little about the kind of speculative excursions the Greeks were known for. Whether or not the noun תרזה (tirza) is related to the previous, it also describes a sort of tree, which is assumed to be the cypress. Bible Verse Study.com. Tarsus also was a place of much commerce. First Appearance in History. Links Here you will find a variety of links to do with Scripture resources, texts and commentary. Saul of Tarsus became the apostle Paul, an ardent missionary to an unbelieving world and a fine example of faithful service in the face of fierce persecution (Acts 14:19; 16:22–24; 2 Corinthians 11:25–26). The modern town, which still bears the ancient name in the slightly modified form Tersous, has a very mixed population, numbering about 25,000, and considerable trade, but suffers from its unhealthful situation and the proximity of large marshy tracts. It is at this time that Tarsus is first mentioned in the Bible, unless we are to accept the disputed identification with TARSHISH (which see). Pompey subjected it to Rome. Remember Me Forgot Password? PDF — the full notes, including weekday introductions, 5 pages. Verse Concepts. It lay on both banks of the river Cydnus, in the midst of a fertile alluvial plain, some 10 miles from the seacoast. Click the 'Search' button below to search the entire website (including all scripture translations, comments, commentary, Bible dictionary, articles, and other pages): It is a fascinating, but an elusive, quest to trace in Paul's life and writings the influence of his Tarsian ancestry, birth and early life. In the New Testament, the Greek word for this place is Hades, and our English translation is Hell. He found the constitution a democracy, swayed and preyed upon by a corrupt clique headed by a certain Boethus, "bad poet and bad citizen," who owed his position partly to his ready and persuasive tongue, partly to the favor of Antony, whom he had pleased by a poem composed to celebrate the victory of Philippi. God found a strict Pharisee, a Christian-hater, a diminutive, unimposing Jew, and called him to become the greatest missionary of all time. What does the source Greek word Ταρσός mean and how is it used in the Bible? Paul says it this way: "So neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God, who makes things grow" (1 Corinthians 3:7). Log In Don't have an account? In 965 it was recaptured, together with the rest of Cilicia, by the emperor Nicephorus Phocas, but toward the close of the following century it fell into the hands of the Turks and afterward of the Crusaders. Saul of Tarsus was a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, born in the city of Tarsus (in modern-day Turkey), but raised in Jerusalem, Judea (Philippians 3:5–6, Acts 22:3). Tarsus Bible Meaning: A flat basket Strong's Concordance #G5018, #G5019. Tarsus / ˈ t ɑːr s ə s / (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; Arabic: طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km (12 miles) inland from the Mediterranean.It is part of the Adana-Mersin metropolitan area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in … Saul Is Then Filled with the Spirit Saul was converted on the road to Damascus. In other words: in a world where academic credentials were everything, the Messiah turned out to be John Doe. Athenodorus sought at first to mend matters by argument and persuasion, but, finding Boethus and his party obdurate, he at length exercised his extraordinary powers, banished the offenders and remodeled the constitution, probably in a timocratic mold, restricting the full citizenship to those possessed of a considerable property qualification. xxxiii, xxxiv; see Jour. A. H. Sayce, new ser., 6 vols., London, 1888-92, iv. Tarsus was the chief city and capital of the Roman Province of Cilicia that was located in the eastern part of Asia Minor. Graec. Tarsus in the Bible. 4. By. Search Results by Versions. 1. Here at Abarim Publications we're pretty sure that the name Tarsus denoted some kind of hefty tree or even a forest of cedars (suggested by the prefixed ת). 18 et seq. In 2 Maccabees 4:30 we read that, about 171 "it came to pass that they of Tarsus and Mallus made insurrection, because … Roads Streets Straight Paths. Where is "Tarsus" (Acts 11:25)? But Tarsus was not simply a place to hail from. Tarsus, a place in Asia Minor Greek: Ταρσός, tarsos (G5019) 3 King James Bible Verses. TEN NEW TESTAMENT CONVERSIONS by Francis Dixon (Scripture Portion: Acts 9:1-20) We have here the historical record of the conversion of Saul of Tarsus, the most important convert in the first century and perhaps in all centuries. At the same time it is certain that the character of his native city, its strong oriental element, its Greek constitution and speech, its position in the Roman Empire, its devotion to learning, must have made an impression upon one who, uniting Jewish nationality with membership of a Greek state and Roman citizenship, was to be the great interpreter to the Greco-Roman world of a religion which sprang from the soil of Judaism. ii.17,1), yet there is reason to believe that he resided there during part of his year of office. Thus the fertility of its soil, the safety and convenience of its harbor and the command of the main line of communication between Anatolia and Syria or Mesopotamia combined to promote the greatness of Tarsus, though its position was neither a healthful or a strong one and the town had no acropolis. 47). 3. On Phoenician coins the city was often called תרז (Taraz or Tarza), which draws our attention to: The unused verb ארז ('araz) probably meant to be firm (it does so in cognate languages), and noun ארז ('erez) means cedar. Exact Match. Hell. Proud member
Thus we find Cicero in command of Cilicia from the summer of 51 BC to the summer of the following year, and though he expressly mentions Tarsus only rarely in his extant letters of this period (e.g. The Persians thereupon set fire to Tarsus, but the timely arrival of the Macedonian advance guard under Parmenio saved the city from destruction. It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city." Here you can find information about the history of ancient Turkey, about biblical sites to visit in Turkey and Greece, major Christian Saints, missionary journeys of St. Paul and Seven Churches of St. John. TARSUS Birthplace and hometown of Saul (Paul) and the capital and chief city of the Roman province of Cilicia in Asia Minor. Emperor Augustus personally made sure that Tarsus was peaceful, and in the wake of that the Tarseans established a university, which became a major center of Stoic philosophy, and according to the Greek historian Strabo, surpassed the great institutions of Athens and Alexandria in zeal for knowledge (XIV.v.12) Paul has an encounter with the Stoics of Athens in Acts 17:18, where they appear together with some Epicureans. The outcome was the reorganization of Tarsus as an autonomous city with a coinage of its own, which took place under Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164), probably in 171 BC. Studies, XXIV, 58). 39 But Paul said, I am a man which am a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city: and, I beseech thee, suffer me to speak unto the people. Why did Barnabas think that Saul would be in Tarsus? It was known for its wealth and schools of learning, which is why Apostle Paul described it as "no insignificant city" (Acts 21:39). Purists like to point out that it can't be proven that Paul received a liberal education during his formative years, but along a high likelihood of it, readers of Paul's work easily recognize the strong influences of (or at least agreements with) Stoic philosophy and ideals of government, as well as the perks of having a dual citizenship (Philippians 3:20); the benefit or even virtue of being fluent in worldly affairs as well as in heavenly affairs. The actual frontier-line seems to have varied at different periods, but the natural boundary lies at the Cilician Gates, a narrow gorge which Tarsian enterprise and engineering skill had widened so as to make it a wagon road, the chief highway of communication and trade between Cilicia and the interior of Asia Minor and one of the most decisive factors in Anatolian history. In 2 Maccabees 4:30 we read that, about 171 "it came to pass that they of Tarsus and Mallus made insurrection, because they were to be given as a present to Antiochis, the king's concubine. i, p. 27, ed Schoene), that Sennacherib, king of Nineveh (705-681 BC), rounded the city, also ascribes to it an Assyrian origin. But Tarsus remained the capital of the district, which during the 1st century of the empire was united with Syria in a single imperial province, and when Cilicia was made a separate province Tarsus, as a matter of course, became its metropolis and the center of the provincial Caesar-worship, and, at a later date, the capital of "the three eparchiae,"Cilicia, Isauria and Lycaonia. In fact, adds Strabo, Rome is full of Tarsians and Alexandrians. See more. We read about this in the Book of Acts. General Editor. It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city." The Rabbi Gamaliel is unable to convince his friend Saul, the arch-enemy and persecutor of Christians, to mend his ways. Be our patron for as little as one dollar a month: https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Tarsus.html, Tarsus; splendid city and prominent academy, The Passion of the Christ and the Theory of Everything, The Fate of Our World: The Bible, AI and Cryptocurrency. "Entry for 'TARSUS'". During the time of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 BC, Tarsus was the most influential city in Asia Minor. The chief city of Cilicia. In 2 Macc 4:30 f we read that, about 171 "it came to pass that they of Tarsus and Mallus made insurrection, because they were to be given as a present to Antiochis, the king's concubine. Athenodorus Canaanites, the Stoic, returned to his city as an old man, after some 30 years spent at Rome, armed with authority from the emperor to reform abuses in its civic life. v.20,3; Ad Faro. Early Life.Saul was born in the city of Tarsus ( Acts 21:39 Acts 21:40).His education was completed at the feet of Gamaliel in the city of Jerusalem ( Acts 22:1-3). His birth name was no doubt Saul while Paul (Paulus) was his Roman name which he naturally would have used more in his missionary work among the Gentiles. 4. After Jonah made the rounds in Nineveh, he went up on a hill and made a shelter (reminiscent of the secondary meaning of the root ארז, 'rz, and obviously Paul's tent-making skills) to review the goings on in the town below. Paul's great success in the gentile world may possibly not have stemmed from his ability to quote Jewish writings, but rather pagan ones: Epimenides (Titus 1:12), Aratus (Acts 17:28), Titus Maccius Plautus (Acts 26:14, read our article on the name Caesar), not to mention his obvious ease with the works of Homer and Hesiod (Acts 28:4, see our article on the name Dike). It remained a focus of imperial loyalty, as is indicated by the names Hadriane, Commodiane, Severiane and others, which appear, isolated or conjoined, upon its coins, together with the title of metropolis and such epithets as "first," "greatest," "fairest." Ramsay believes that Tarsus existed from time immemorial as a native Cilician settlement, to which was added, at some early date unknown to us, a body of Ionians, which migrated from the western coast of Asia Minor under the auspices and direction of the oracle of Clarian Apollo near Colophon. Tarsus is not again mentioned in the New Testament, but Paul doubtless revisited it on his second missionary journey, when he "went through Syria and Cilicia" (Acts 15:41), and traveled thence by way of the Cilician Gates into Lycaonia, and again at the beginning of his third journey when, after some time spent at Antioch, "he departed, and went through the region of Galatia, and Phrygia, in order" (Acts 18:23). It is at this time that Tarsus is first mentioned in the Bible, unless we are to accept the … Copyright © 2021, Bible Study Tools. The chief city of Cilicia. Jesus would give no sign than that of Jonah (Matthew 12:38-41), who was the only other prophet from Galilee (2 Kings 14:25, John 7:52); after three days Jonah was vomited up when he exclaimed that "Salvation is from YHWH" (which compacted forms the name Jesus; Jonah 2:9) and after the same three days Jesus resurrected and commissioned Paul, who, just like Jonah, became a missionary to the gentiles (since Jonah's Tarshish is rumored to have been in Spain, Paul's desire to go just there is rather ironic — Romans 15:24-28). Few traces of its ancient greatness survive, the most considerable of them being the vast substructure of a Greco-Roman temple, known locally as the tomb of Sardanapalus (R. Koldewey in C. Robert, Aus der Anomia, 178). Tarsus, Biblical Sites in Turkey, Biblical Tour Guide is a web site where we share with you our knowledge and offer you our top services. About 6 miles below the city the river broadened out into a considerable lake called Rhegma (Strabo xiv.672), which afforded a safe anchorage and was in great part fringed with quays and dockyards. The name Tarsus in the Bible The name Tarsus belongs to the city where the apostle Paul was born; a fact which Jesus mentions once ( Acts 9:11 ) … But such speculations are likely to be misleading, and it is perhaps best to admit that, save in the trade learned by Paul, which was characteristic of his birthplace, we cannot with any precision gauge the effects of his early surroundings. It is probable that his forefathers had been among the Jews settled at Tarsus by Antiochus Epiphanes, who, without sacrificing nationality or religion, became citizens of a community organized after the Greek model. That this settlement took the form of a compromise and the grant to Tarsus of at least a municipal independence we may infer from the fact that Tarsus struck its own coins from this reign onward. 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